WILLIAM J. JANKLOW, GOVERNOR OF SOUTH DAKOTA ET AL. v. PLANNED
PARENTHOOD, SIOUX FALLS CLINIC ET AL.
ON PETITION FOR WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT
Decided April 29, 1996
The motion of National Right to Life Committee, Inc., for leave to file a brief as amicus curiae is granted. The petition for a writ of certiorari is denied.
Memorandum of JUSTICE STEVENS, respecting the denial of the petition for certiorari.
The Court's opinion in United States v. Salerno, 481 U.S. 739 (1987), correctly summarized a long established principle of our jurisprudence: "The fact that [a legislative] Act might operate unconstitutionally under some conceivable set of circumstances is insufficient to render it wholly invalid." Id., at 745.
Unfortunately, the preceding sentence in the Salerno opinion went well beyond that principle. That sentence opens Part II of the opinion with a rhetorical flourish, stating that a facial challenge must fail unless there is "no set of circumstances" in which the statute could be validly applied. Ibid.; post, at 3. That statement was unsupported by citation or precedent. It was also unnecessary to the holding in the case, for the Court effectively held that the statute at issue would be constitutional as applied in a large fraction of cases. See 481 U.S., at 749 -750.
While a facial challenge may be more difficult to mount than an as-applied challenge, the dicta in Salerno "does not accurately characterize the standard for deciding facial challenges," and "neither accurately reflects the Court's practice with respect to facial challenges, nor is it consistent [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 2] with a wide array of legal principles." Dorf, Facial Challenges to State and Federal Statutes, 46 Stan. L. Rev. 235, 236, 238 (1994). For these reasons, Salerno's rigid and unwise dictum has been properly ignored in subsequent cases even outside the abortion context. 1 Accordingly, there is no need for this Court affirmatively to disavow that unfortunate language, in the abortion context or otherwise, until it is clear that a federal court has ignored the appropriate principle and applied the draconian "no circumstance" dictum to deny relief in a case in which a facial challenge would otherwise be successful. 2 I thus concur in the denial of this petition. [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 3]
These cases, along with other decisions and the holding in Salerno itself (that the challenged Act was constitutional in most circumstances, not merely one), should have braced the dissent against the minor risk of whiplash from the "head-snapping" observation, post, at 5, that our "doctrinal pattern is somewhat more complex" than Salerno's "no circumstance" language suggests, Fallon, Making Sense of Overbreadth, 100 Yale L. J. 853, 859, n. 29 (1991) (citing cases).
[ Footnote 2 ] In all likelihood, the decision of the Fifth Circuit applying the "no circumstance" test would have been decided the same way even if that court had utilized the "large fraction" test applied by the Eighth Circuit [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 3] in this case. See Barnes v. Moore, 970 F.2d 12, 14 (CA5 1992) (noting that the provisions at issue were "substantially identical" to provisions upheld in Casey).
Furthermore, it is not at all clear to me, given intervening statements by Members of this Court, see Fargo Women's Health Organization v. Schafer, 507 U.S. 1013, 1014 (1993), that subsequent Fifth Circuit panels would follow Barnes' application of the "no circumstance" test, providing yet another reason to deny the petition in this case. [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 1]
JUSTICE SCALIA, with whom THE CHIEF JUSTICE and JUSTICE THOMAS join, dissenting.
In this case, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit declared unconstitutional a South Dakota law which requires a physician to notify a pregnant minor's parent of an impending abortion 48 hours before the abortion is to be performed. 1 The court's basis for the invalidation was that "a large fraction of minors seeking pre-viability abortions would be unduly burdened by [the] statute, despite its abuse exception," 2 Planned Parenthood, Sioux Falls Clinic v. [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 2] Miller, 63 F.3d 1452, 1463 (1995) (emphasis added).
This decision is questionable enough that we should, since the invalidation of state law is at issue, accord review. Among other things, it rested upon the court's belief that "it seems, South Dakota's abuse exception will sometimes result in parental notification, even if after-the-fact." Id., at 1461. That reasoning is inconsistent with our holding in Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, 497 U.S. 502, 514 (1990), another case involving a parental notification provision, that "[t]he Court of Appeals should not have invalidated the Ohio statute on a facial challenge based upon a worst-case analysis that may never occur." The Eighth Circuit's holding is also dependent on the questionable conclusions (1) that "parental-notice provisions, like parental-consent provisions, are unconstitutional without a Bellotti-type bypass," 63 F.3d, at 1460, see Bellotti v. Baird, 443 U.S. 622 (1979), and (2) that the South Dakota law's exception for abused and neglected minors did not satisfy the need for a bypass procedure, 63 F.3d, at 1460-1463.
Beyond these issues, however (or, more accurately, preceding them), is another question that virtually cries out for our review. In United States v. Salerno, 481 U.S. 739 [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 3] (1987), summarizing a long established principle of our jurisprudence, we observed:
In this case - after reviewing the incompatible pronouncements of the Court's opinions on this subject, and remarking that "even the Justices of the Supreme Court dispute Casey's effect," 63 F.3d, at 1457 - the Court of Appeals concluded, in effect, that Salerno had been chewed up by the "ad hoc nullification machine" which is our abortion jurisprudence, Madsen v. Women's Health Center, Inc., 512 U.S. ___, ___ (1994) (slip op., at 2) (SCALIA, J., dissenting). The court decided that Casey, without so much as alluding to the facial-challenge rule, "effectively overruled Salerno for facial challenges to abortion statutes," 63 F.3d, at 1458. This holding conflicts head-on with a post-Casey decision of the Fifth Circuit. In Barnes v. Moore, 970 F.2d 12, cert. denied, 506 U.S. 1021 (1992), the Fifth Circuit rejected a facial challenge to the Mississippi Informed Consent to Abortion Act. In the process, it said that "[b]ecause the plaintiffs are challenging the facial validity of the Mississippi Act, they must `establish that no set of circumstances exists under which the Act would be valid,'" 970 F.2d, at 14, adding that "we do not interpret Casey as having overruled, sub silentio, longstanding Supreme Court precedent governing challenges to the facial constitutionality of statutes," id., at 14, n. 2. The split between the Fifth and Eighth Circuits is unmistakably clear. The Third Circuit has also weighed in on this question (albeit in dictum), siding with the Eighth Circuit. See Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa., 14 F.3d 848, 863, n. 21 (1994).
The Salerno question could not be more squarely presented. The Court of Appeals explained that "[t]he critical issue in this case is . . . what is the standard for a challenge to the facial constitutionality of an abortion law?" 63 F.3d, at 1456 (emphasis added). It specifically acknowledged that "Planned [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 5] Parenthood cannot meet the Salerno test." Id., at 1457. Had the Court of Appeals not concluded that the Salerno rule has been selectively (and sub silentio) nullified in abortion cases, respondents' facial challenge quite simply would have failed.
JUSTICE STEVENS' memorandum in support of the denial of this petition provides even stronger reasons than I have why it should be granted. JUSTICE STEVENS asserts that Casey could not possibly have been contrary to the "no set of circumstances" rule because, contrary to the repeated statement of our cases, that rule never existed. For that head-snapping proposition, he relies upon no less weighty authority than a law-review article by Michael C. Dorf. According to that author, THE CHIEF JUSTICE'S statement on behalf of the Court in Salerno was not only "wrong" but "draconian." Dorf, Facial Challenges to State and Federal Statutes, 46 Stan. L. Rev. 235, 238, 239 (1994); see ante, at 2. But if that is so, if Salerno is a dead letter even outside of the abortion context, all the more reason to grant certiorari and make that clear. 4 For the courts of appeals regularly enforce that supposed dead letter, often in cases in which its "draconian" character prevents the facial challenge from succeeding. See, e.g., Chemical Waste Management, Inc. v. United States Environmental Protecton Agency, 56 F.3d 1434, 1437 (CADC 1995) ("We discern at least one scenario where the off-site rule would be procedurally valid. . . . While this hypothetical scenario may not be common, it is sufficient to establish that petitioners' facial challenge must fail"); United States v. Mena, 863 F.2d 1522, 1527 (CA11 1989) ("[T]he defendants have simply failed even to suggest `that no set of circumstances exists under which the Act would be valid.' Such is the defendant's burden in a case challenging the facial validity of a congressional enactment on other than first-amendment [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 6] grounds"); Roulette v. Seattle, ___ F.3d ___, ___ (CA9 1996) ("Plaintiffs have conceded that `the city may prevent individuals or groups of people from sitting or lying across a sidewalk in such a way as to prevent others from passing.' The Seattle ordinance plainly may be applied to such cases, and plaintiffs' facial substantive due process challenge therefore fails") (citation omitted); Government Suppliers Consolidating Servs., Inc. v. Bayh, 975 F.2d 1267, 1283 (CA7 1992); Dean v. McWherter, 70 F.3d 43, 45 (CA6 1995); National Treasury Employees Union v. Bush, 891 F.2d 99, 101 (CA5 1989) ("[B]ecause not every application of the Order would be invalid, the Order is facially valid"); Jordan v. Jackson, 15 F.3d 333, 343-344 (CA4 1994); Giusto v. INS, 9 F.3d 8, 10 (CA2 1993).
Finally, I cannot let pass without comment JUSTICE STEVENS' suggestion that Fifth Circuit panels might, in future abortion cases, ignore the clear language of Salerno, and the Fifth Circuit's own decision in Barnes, "given intervening statements by Members of this Court" - by which he means the memorandum of JUSTICE O'CONNOR, joined by JUSTICE SOUTER, concurring in the Court's Order of April 2, 1993, denying (without opinion) the application for stay and injunction pending appeal in Fargo Women's Health Organization v. Shafer, 507 U.S. 1013 (1993). See ante, at 2, n. 2. That the Fifth Circuit might give such authoritative effect to this two-Justice concurrence is certainly true; courts of appeals, no less than practitioners, sometimes count votes instead of following cases. But I am surprised to find that practice endorsed by JUSTICE STEVENS, who has hitherto taken a dim view of separate writings appended to discretionary (and unexplained) denials, calling "all opinions dissenting from the denial of certiorari" "totally unnecessary" and "examples of the purest form of dicta." Singleton v. Commissioner, 439 U.S. 940, 944 -945 (1978) (STEVENS, J., respecting the denial of certiorari). More fundamentally, I find it hard to understand why one who believes that Salerno's "no set of circumstances" rule is nothing more than unwise, rigid and inaccurate dictum, ante, at 1-2, would not seize upon this opportunity "affirmatively to disavow" it, ante, at 2, instead of [ JANKLOW v. PLANNED PARENTHOOD, ___ U.S. ___ (1996) , 7] hoping that the courts of appeals will be induced to abandon it by reading the tea leaves of concurring opinions. Today's denial serves only one rational purpose: it makes our abortion ad hoc nullification machine as stealthful as possible.
For the foregoing reasons, I dissent from the Court's denial of the petition for certiorari.
[ Footnote 1 ] South Dakota Codified Laws 34-23A-7 (1994 rev.) provides, in relevant part:
[ Footnote 2 ] South Dakota Codified Laws 34-23A-7 (1994 rev.) sets forth the following exceptions to its notice requirement:
[ Footnote 3 ] See also Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S. 490, 524 (1989) (O'CONNOR, J., concurring in part and concurring in judgment) ("[S]ome quite straightforward applications of the Missouri ban on the use of public facilities for performing abortions would be constitutional and that is enough to defeat appellees' assertion that the ban is facially unconstitutional"). JUSTICE STEVENS' memorandum in support of the denial of certiorari says that the Salerno rule "has been properly ignored in subsequent cases even outside the abortion context." Ante, at 2. If he means by this that the rule has consistently been ignored, the statement is proved false by the cases cited here in text, where the rule was both recited and followed. (And there are other post-Salerno cases reciting and applying the rule outside the abortion context, see, e.g., Anderson v. Edwards, 514 U.S. ___, ___, n. 6 (1995) (slip op., at 11, n. 6), and Reno v. Flores, 507 U.S. 292, 301 , 309 (1993).) If, on the other hand, JUSTICE STEVENS merely means that the Salerno rule has sometimes "been ignored," though it has other times been applied, then he makes a good case for granting rather than denying certiorari.
[ Footnote 4 ] While we are in the process of adopting Prof. Dorf's revisionist view of Salerno, we could also embrace his modest proposal for what ought to replace the rule described in that case. His proposal is not, curiously enough, the regime that JUSTICE STEVENS suggests, but rather total elimination of the distinction between facial and as-applied challenges. Dorf, supra, at 294. Page I